Growth, Development, and Maturation: Part 2 – Practical Implications

 

So how do we put this into practice? 

 

Having a basic understanding of the above is essential, however knowing how to measure and prescribe relevant training for young people is arguably the most important bit!  

 

Long term athletic development (LTAD) models tell us that at a certain age, this young person should be able to do X, Y and Z. BUT…  

 

What if the child has a rapid growth spurt and therefore suddenly has reduced co-ordination skills?  

What if a child hasn’t yet gone through their growth spurt and can’t achieve the minimum expectation of someone “aged 12”? 

 

This is where the Youth Physical Development Model comes into play. This model suggests young people should continue to work on everything… Prioritising different elements of the model at different stages of development. For example Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) should be continually incorporated into any training programme, as these are the foundations of movement. This should be a priority in early to mid childhood and then realistically maintained within warm ups while other elements take priority.  

 

Check out the Youth Physical Development Model article here. 

 

Youths generally get minimal contact time for athletic development due to sport specific skills taking priority in sessions. So we have to make a decision on what is going to have the largest benefit with the minimal available time at our disposal. 

 

FMS should also be re-prioritised during and after growth spurts, as there will be a clear decrease in movement skill competency and the young athlete will have to relearn these skills again due to things such as increased limb lengths or foot size.  

 

Strength should always be a priority, this can be developed from a very young age. A simplified way to look at it is when a baby stands up for the first time or walks for the first time. They are learning how to move and causing stress on their body in the process, very similar to intentional strength exercises when prescribed by experienced and qualified coaches. 

 

You can read a full article on Strength training for youths here

 

Alongside strength we should also include components such as speed, agility, and power. These are all trainable with youths and should be a priority for 5-17 year olds (1). Speed can refer to many things, however in this instance I will simplify it and refer to sprint speed. This can be improved through maximal sprints, however young people regularly do this within sport and physical activity.

 

This is similar to agility (change of direction at speed), kids are always running round and changing direction quickly. As coaches or teachers we should be coaching technique and embedding good movement patterns in youths from a young age, instead of putting on drills for kids to repeat over and over again regardless if they are moving well or not. 

 

Power development can be incorporated by performing different types of jumps and medicine ball exercises. These can be introduced at the start of a session before moving onto strength work. However young people should be taught the correct landing mechanics before then loading these movement patterns.

 

Finally, the body can only tolerate so much load and therefore when programming strength, power, and speed exercises you need to be careful you don’t go over the top. Start with low volume and slowly build the volume up as their tolerance to training increases. 

 

Part 3 will provide information on monitoring and measurement of young athletes, how this can be integrated and used within young peoples development. Part 3 coming soon!

 

References

   1.  LLOYD, Rhodri, and OLIVER, Jon L (2012). Strength and Conditioning for Young Athletes.        Oxon, Routledge.

Growth, Development, and Maturation: Part 1 – An Introduction

These terms are thrown around quite a lot by coaches and teachers, including the classic “Children are not mini adults” statement. But what does this actually mean and how does this then impact on session planning and delivery? This article will look to break down the literature and provide useful suggestions on how to measure, programme, and apply the science into practice. 

 

What is Growth, Development and Maturation? 

 

Growth is simply the growth in body mass and stature from birth to adulthood. Growth is the result of increased cell size, number, and cell material, which is caused by certain biological processes (for example hypertrophy – building muscle) 

 

Maturation can be broken down into two main categories, skeletal maturity and sexual maturity. Maturity is referred to as the rate of progress, rather than the quantitative increase in cells (growth). Skeletal maturity is defined as a fully ossified (developed) skeleton, this means the skeleton’s development is complete and therefore has reached maximum size. Sexual maturity is defined as a fully functional reproductive system, therefore simply put the body is capable of producing children. 

 

Development is a more generalised approach, which considers more qualitative measures, including biological and behavioural characteristics. The biological side considers the formation of specific functional tissues, whereas the behavioural aspect looks at affective (social), cognitive (brain), and psychomotor (movement) development.  

There are three age based categories we can use to consider where a child is in certain areas of their development. Generally speaking these are chronological age, biological age, and training age. 

 

Chronological age refers to how old someone is based on when they were born. This is regularly used to determine things like school year and squad age group. However this causes problems  in many sport activities and competitions, the image below is a great example. 

 

 

 

 

The image above shows three gymnasts of the same chronological age, but if we look back to the definitions of growth, maturation, and development earlier in this article, we should be able to see how these young gymnasts are all at different stages in their development. 

 

Biological age is a more informative descriptor of a young persons “true age” in terms of growth, maturation, and development. Biological age can be broken down into three areas, skeletal age, sexual age, and somatic age. 

 

Skeletal age is determined by the level of offisification (bone development). This is generally assessed by radiographs, however a huge limitation to this is the radiation dose associated with the scan. Sexual age refers to rapid increases in growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and maturation of the reproductive system (3). Finally, Somatic age simply looks at physical maturity, such as height and body mass. Maturity can be measured in this way through ratios, such as sitting height to leg length (2) and talent can be predicted using second to fourth digit ratio (1). 

 

Training age is also important to consider, this is related to the time spent doing an activity, for example a young football player has a training age of 7 years. Although not necessarily a part of growth or maturation, it is important to consider when monitoring young peoples overall development.

 

Part 2 of this series will look at the practical implications of growth, development, and maturation. Specifically looking at how do we alter our delivery, methods, or programme.

 

References

  1. MANNING, J T (2002). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length and performance in skiing. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 42 (4), 446-450. 
     

  2. SHERAR, Lauren B, MIRWALD, Robert L, BAXTER-JONES, Adam DG, and THOMIS, Martine (2005). Prediction of adult height using maturity-based cumulative height velocity curves. The Journal of pediatrics. 147 (4), 508-514.
     

  3. TANNER, J M, GOLDSTEIN, H, and WHITEHOUSE R H (1970). Standards for children’s height at ages 2-9 years allowing for heights of parents. Archives of disease in childhood, 45 (244), 755-762.